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INDEX


Acca Larentia, 67

Acolytes, 177

Adolenda, 162

Addenda Commolenda Deferunda, 162, 490

Aedes Vestae: see Vesta

Aediles, plebeian, 255

Aemilius Paulus, 340, 362, 433

Aeneid, the, 119, 206, 230, 250, 251; as a means of understanding the spirit of the Roman religion, 254; a poem of religion and morals, 409-425

Aesculapius, 260

Ager paganus: lustration, 80, 213
Romanus: lustration, 78, 100

Agriculture, the economic basis of Roman life, 99; festivals, see Festivals

Agrippa, 442, 443

Alba Longa, 109, 128

Alban Mount
Latin festival, 172;
temple of Jupiter Latiaris, 237, 238, 245

Alexander, Archibald, on faith, 472

Ambarvalia, procession of the, 214, 218, 442

Amburbium, 214, 218, 332

Amulets, 42, 59, 60, 74, 84

Ancilia, 97;
lustration, 96, 217;
moving, 36

Angerona, 117

Animism, 65, 122, 148, 164, 287

Anna Perenna
festival, 65, 105, 346; Ovid's account of, 473

Antoninus Pius, 429

Apollo, 257, 449;
cult of, 268;
associated with Diana, 443, 446;
with Latona, 262;
the Pythian, 323;
temple, 443-445;
institution of Apolline games, 326

Appius Claudius, 300

Aquaelicium, ceremony of the, 50, 52

Ara, meaning of, 146

Ara Maxima in the Forum Boarium 29, 230

Ara Pacis of Augustus, 177, 437, 448

Argei
festival, 36, 65;
puppets thrown into the Tiber, 54, 105, 321, 322; chapels called, 321, 322

Armilustrium, 97

Army: lustration of, 96, 100, 215, 217

Arnobius, 51, 52, 459, 461, 465

Artemis, 235, 443

Arval Brethren: see Fratres Arvales

Asclepios, 260

Astrology, 396-398, 401

Ateius Capito, 441

Athene Polias, 234

Attalus, king of Pergamus, 330

Atticus, Cicero's letters to, 385

Attus Navius, soothsayer, 297

Augurium canarium, 310

Augurs, 174-176, 193, 271, 276;
and the art of divination, 292-309; in relation to the Rex, 301;
art strictly secret, 301;
compared with pontifices, 303
lore preserved in books, 303;
political importance, 305

Augustus, 35, 133, 213, 344;
revival of religion, 428-447;
his connection with Virgil, 428;
pontifex maximus, 433;
restoration of temples, 433-434;
revival of ancient ritual, 434-436; restorer of the pax deorum, 438

Aurelius, Marcus, 456

Auspicia, 175, 214;
in life of family, 299;
in State operations, 300;
indissolubly connected with imperuim, 301

Aust, on religion of the family, 68; on Roman deities, 157;
on prayer, 198;
on reaction against the ius divinum, 349

Aventine
plebeian quarter, 255;
temples, 95, 147, 233, 234, 237, 244, 484

Axtell, Harold L., on Fortuna, 245


Bacchic rites, introduction of, 344-348

Bailey, Cyril, cited, 400

Beans, used to get rid of ghosts, 85, 107; taboo on eating, 91, 98

Bellona, connection with Mars, 166

Bibulus, 305

Binder, Dr., on the plebs, 23, 86, 242, 289, 393

Birds, used in augury, 293, 296, 299, 302

Birth, spirits invoked at, 83, 84, 164

Blood
taboo on, 33;
mystic use of, 33, 34, 82; not prominent in Roman ritual, 180-181; consecration through, 194; wine as substitute for, 196

Boissier, G., 391;
on the Aeneid, 414, 427

Bona Dea, 484

Bouché-Leclercq, M., on divination, 310

Boundary festivals: see Terminalia

Boundary stones, 81-82, 212;
sprinkled with blood of victims, 34, 82, 196

Bulla worn by children, 60, 74

Burial places loca religiosa, 37, 385

Bussell, F. W., cited, 366, 367


Caesar, Julius
belief in spells, 59; calendar, 95; pontifex maximus, 305; and the priesthood, 343

Caesar-worship, 437, 438, 456

Caird, Professor, 357;
on Reason in man, 368, 373

Cakes
honey, 82;
sacred, 83, 130, 141, 180, 183, 184, 274, 449; see also Salt-cake

Calendar, the ancient religious, 12, 14, 34, 38, 55, 65, 217, 225;

described, 94-109;
in relation to agricultural life, 100-102, 282, 295; festivals necessarily fixed, 102; a matter of routine, 103;
its psychological result, 104-105; a document of religious law, 106; exclusion of the barbarous and grotesque, 107; attributed to Numa Pompilius, 108

Julian, 95

Calpurnius Piso, L.: see Piso

Camilli and camillae, 177, 195

Campus Martius, 34, 447;
lustrum of censors, 203, 210, 215, 219

Cannae, religious panic after the battle of, 319

Cantorelli, on the annales maximi, 290

Capitolium, 238, 239, 246, 339;
Carmen saeculare sung, 444-445;
temples, 95, 115, 146, 203, 239, 242, 245, 254, 266, 433, 443, 447

Caprotinae, Nonae, 143

Cardea, 76;
connection with Janus, 485

Caristia, 418, 457

Carmen, meaning of, 186;
used at siege of Carthage, 206, 219 Arvale, 78, 132, 186, 187, 436
used by Attiedii, 187
saeculare, 431, 432, 439, 443-447, 450, 451 Saliare, 186

Carmenta, 36, 122, 297

Carmentalia, 98

Carna, 117

Carter, J. B., on cult-titles, 153;
on the Latins, 229-230;
on Castor-cult, 232, 244;
on Diana, 236;
on Fortuna, 245;
on Hercules, 231;
on Janus, 141;
on Juno, 144;
on the Manes, 386;
on Mars, 133;
on Poseidon-Neptune, 260

Cassius Hemina, 349, 356

Castor and Pollux, 231, 244;
temple, 231, 244

Cato, the Censor, 121, 132, 182-184, 251, 296, 298, 340

Catullus, on death, 387

Censors, lustrum of the, 203, 210, 215, 219

Census, 215, 218

Cerealia, 100, 121, 269

Ceres, 100, 121, 139, 161, 162, 260, 435, 446; temple, 255, 269

Cerfius, or Cerus, 158

Chaldeans, 296;
expelled from Rome, 397, 402

Charms, 59-62;
see also Amulets

Chickens, sacred, as omens, 314, 315

Children
purificatory rites, 28;
naming of, 28-29, 42; amulets and bulla worn by, 42, 60, 74, 84; dedication of, 204-205
Christianity, early
contributions from the Roman religion, 452-467; the Greek and Latin fathers compared, 458-459; its relation to morality, 471

Cicero, 58, 178, 296, 309;
on religiousness of the Romans, 249-250; on Titus Coruncanius, 281-282;
on divination, 299, 312;
on interest of the gods in human affairs, 360; on Stoicism, 365-368, 377;
on relation of man to God, 370;
affected by revival of Pythagoreanism, 381, 383, 389; turns to mysticism, 384, 388;
his letters to Atticus, 385;
his Somnium Scipionis, 383, 386, 412; belief in a future life, 389;
definition of religio, 460

Claudius, Emperor, 309, 438

Claudius Pulcher, P., 315
Quadrigarius, 39

Cleanthes, hymn of, 368, 377

Clusius (or Clusivius), cult-title of Janus, 126

Coinquenda, 162

Colonia, religious rites at founding of, 170

Compitalia, 61, 78, 81, 88, 102

Concordia, 285

Conditor, 161

Confarreatio, marriage by, 83, 130, 274

Coniuratio, 347, 348, 356

Consolatio, 388

Constantius, 430

Consualia, 101, 139

Consuls, annual ceremony at the Capitoline temple, 203, 219, 239-240

Consus, 285;
connection with Ops, 482

Convector, 161

Conway, Professor, on Quirinus and Quirites, 143

Cook, A. B., on Jupiter, 128, 141;
on Janus, 140;
on Quirinus and Quirites, 143

Corn deities, Greek, 255, 259

Corpus Inscriptionum, 13, 201

Coruncanius, Titus, 271, 279, 281, 290

Coulanges, Fustel de, on the Lar, 77

Crawley, Mr., on the fatherhood of gods, 157; on religion and morality, 227, 242

Cremation, 382, 395, 398, 401

Crooke, Mr., on luck in odd numbers, 98

Cult-titles, invention of, 153

Cumont, Professor, on the religion of the Romans, 2; on Jupiter, 246

Cunina, 159

Cuq, on civil and religious law, 486

Cura et caerimonia, Cicero's expression, 81, 104, 106, 108, 145, 162, 170, 270, 282, 343, 434, 460

Curia, 138

Curiatius, 126

Cynics, the, 372


Days, lucky and unlucky, 38-41;
see also Dies

De Marchi, on votive offerings, 201, 202

Dea Dia, 146;
description of rites, 435-436;
veneration for utensils used, 436; temple, 161, 436

Dead
disposal of the, 45, 84, 121, 395, 401; cult, 91, 102, 457, 470; festivals, 40, 112, 418; contrast between Lemuria and Parentalia, 107, 393-395

Decemviri, 259, 317, 318, 326

Decius Mus, self-sacrifice of, 206-207, 220, 286, 320

Deities, Roman
see also Numen and Spirits; sources of our knowledge of, 114-115; mental conception of the Romans regarding, 115-117, 122-123, 139-140, 145, 147, 157, 224-225;

di indigetes, 117, 139, 149, 180, 214; functional spirits with will-power, 119; the four great gods, 124-134;
epithets of Pater and Mater applied to, 137, 155-157; the question of marriage, 148-152, 166, 350, 481-485; fluctuation between male and female, 148-149; nomenclature, 118, 149-156, 163;
compared with Greek gods, 158;
presence of, at meals, 172-173, 193; introduction of new, 96, 229-242, 255-262; women's, see Women

Delphic oracle consulted during Hannibalic war, 323-324, 326

Demeter, 255;
supersession of Ceres by, 100

Deubner, Professor, his theory of the Lupercalia, 138, 478-480

Devotio, 206-209, 219-221;
formula, 207-208, 220;
sacrificial nature, 207, 220

Di Manes: see Manes

Di Penates: see Penates

Diana
associated with Janus, 76, 125, 166; connection with Artemis, 235, 443; with Apollo, 443, 446; with Hercules, 262; functions, 234-236; temples, 95, 147, 234, 237, 244

Dies comitiales, 103
endotercisi, 181
fasti, 98, 103, 181
lustricus, 28, 42, 90
nefasti, 38, 40, 98, 103, 181
postriduani, 39, 40
religiosi, 38-40, 105

Dieterich, on disposal of the dead, 401

Dill, Professor, on Roman worship, 200

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 130, 193, 215, 234, 250

Dionysus
identified with Liber, 255, 344; ritual, in Greece, 344-345; outbreak of Dionysiac orgies in Italy, 344

Dis, black victims sacrificed to, 440

Dius Fidius, connection with Jupiter, 130, 142

Divination, 56, 180;
a universal instinct of human nature, 292, 306; connection with magic, 293, 310;
views on the origin of, 293;
formalised by State authorities, 295, 300; private, 295;
quack diviners, 296-298;
auspicia of family religion, 298-300; public, 301;
duties of the Rex, 302;
lore preserved in books, 303;
divination by lightning, 51, 52, 304, 305, 307, 309; no lasting value in sphere of religion, 306; a clog on progress, 307;
sinister influence of Etruscan divination on Rome, 307

Dobschütz, on Christianity, 455

Dogs: sacrifices: see Sacrifices

Dolabella, Cornelius, 342

Döllinger, Dr., on the Flamen Dialis, 112; on prayer, 468

Domaszewski, von, cited, 99, 110, 154, 167; definition of numen, 119;
on the cult epithets of Janus, 140; on Juno, 144;
on evolution of dei out of functional numina, 165

Duhn, Professor von, cited, 31, 89

Dynamic theory of sacrifice, 177, 184, 190, 194


Earthquakes, expiation of, 339

Eilithyia, Greek deity of childbirth, 442, 446, 449

Ennius, cited, 65, 152, 183, 298, 322, 350, 351, 356

Epictetus, 369, 372

Epicurism, 352, 358, 360, 361, 375, 376, 381, 404, 453

Epicurus, 359

Epulum Iovis: see Jupiter

Equirria, 96, 99, 217

Eschatology, Christian: preparation of the Roman mind for, 454

Esquiline, 87, 395

Etruscans, 17;
domination in Rome, 237, 239, 245, 258; art of divination, 299, 304;
sinister influence on Rome, 307, 346, 347, 391

Evil spirits, 11, 29, 75, 76, 84, 93; wolf's fat as a charm against, 90

Evocatio, 58, 206

Excantatio, 58, 482

Extipicina, Etruscan rite of, 180


Fabius Pictor, 161, 261, 318, 320, 323, 326

Falacer, 122

Family (familia)
origin and meaning of, 70, 86; religion in the, 68, 70, 73, 92, 116, 224, 226-228, 251, 270, 274, 298-300;

description of the house, 72-73, 87; its holy places, 73;
spirits of the household: see Spirits; the Lar familiaris, 77;
position of slaves, 78;
religio terminorum, 82;
marriage, 83;
childbirth, 83;
burial of the dead, 73, 92;
maintenance of the sacra, 274-275

Fanum, meaning of, 146

Far, sacred cakes of, 45, 83, 130, 141, 180, 274

Farnell, Dr., cited, 19, 27, 160, 161, 205; on the vow of the ver sacrum, 219; on Dionysiac ritual, 345, 355

Farreus, connection with Jupiter, 130

Fas, early usage of, 487-488

Fasti: see Calendar

Faunalia, 137

Faunus, 81, 89, 297, 479;
connection with Lupercalia, 117

Februum, meaning of, 210, 222

Feretrius, cult-title of Jupiter: see Jupiter

Feriae Iovis, 129
Latinae, 40, 61, 172

Feronia, 284, 318

Ferrero, on the Carmen saeculare, 431, 450; on the ludi saeculares, 440

Fertility, customs to produce, 100, 106, 143, 210, 222, 479

Festivals, 78-81, 97, 105;
agricultural, 34, 82, 98, 100, 120; harvest, 98, 101, 121;
vintage, 100, 129;
of the dead: see Dead;
Latin festival on Alban mount, 172; in calendar, necessarily fixed, 95, 99, 102; women's: see Women

Festus, 33, 61, 141, 217

Fetiales, 31, 130, 143, 157, 251, 434, 488

Fides, 154, 446, 450;
connection with Jupiter, 167

Fig
tree: sprouting of, on roof of temple, 162; piacula offered to various deities, 436, 490

Flamen Cerealis, 161, 163
Dialis, 32, 112, 124, 129, 193, 239, 246, 327, 342, 479;

insignia, 177;
taboos on, 33-35, 44, 45, 108, 109, 327, 342, 343

Martialis, 124, 131, 142, 341
Quirinalis, 124, 131, 134, 139, 142, 181, 197, 342, 434 Volcanalis, 484

Flamines, 113, 122, 123, 175, 193, 280, 341, 434; insignia, 177;
personal purity essential, 178, 195

Flaminica Dialis, 135, 144;
insignia, 177;
taboos on, 35-36

Flaminius, 315, 317, 338, 340

Flora, 122

Fons, 117, 285

Forculus, the door spirit, 76

Fordicidia, 100, 120, 121

Fornacalia, 173

Fortuna (Fors Fortuna), 201, 235, 245, 284, 297, 396, 401

Forum Boarium, human sacrifices, 112, 320

Fratres Arvales
Acta Fratrum Arvalium, 161, 213, 435; altar, 164; carmen, 78, 132, 186, 187, 436; ritual of, 35, 100, 146, 149, 157, 162, 182, 191, 195, 213; revived by Augustus, 434; duties of the Brethren, 435; worship of sacred utensils, 489-490

Attiedii, 157, 187, 215

Frazer, Dr. J. G., his definition of religion, 8; his theory of divine kingship, 19, 20, 49, 51, 52, 115, 128, 140; on totemism, 25, 26;
on taboo, 30, 34, 47;
on oscilla, 61, 62, 67;
on the Parilia, 100, 222;
on marriage of gods, 144, 149, 150, 152, 155, 156, 165, 350, 481-485; on cult of Jupiter, 167;
on appointment of camillae, 177, 195; on Diana, 235;
on superstition, 264

Fulgur, cult-title of Jupiter, 129

Furrina, 18, 117, 122


Gallus, Aelius, on religiosum, 37

Games instituted to divert attention in times of trouble, 262-263; Apolline, 326;
see also Ludi

Gardner, Professor E., cited, 355

Gardner, Professor P., on Christianity, 452; on prayers for the dead, 457;
cited, 465

Gellius, Aulus, on the conjunction of divine names, 150-152; story of Scipio, 240;
on religiousness of the Romans, 250

Genius
the male principle of life, 30, 92, 154, 317, 332; of the paterfamilias, 30; doubtful identification of Hercules with, 30; in combination with Hercules and Juventas, 332; Juno the feminine counterpart of, 87

Gennep, M. van, on taboo, 42, 44;
on religious ceremonies, 65, 90, 442; on lustrations, 211, 212

Gentes, 69, 259

Georgics, the religious spirit of the, 407

Ghosts, 75, 85, 91, 92, 107

Gilds, trade, 230

Glover, Mr., on Christianity, 456

God, as represented in the Aeneid, 426

Gods: see Deities

Gratitude, not a prominent characteristic of the Roman, 252, 267

Greek comedy, influence on Roman religion, 351-353 gods, compared with Roman, 158;

introduced into Rome, 230-242

literature, 296
philosophy, influence on Roman religion, 357-375

Greenidge, Dr., on the auspicia and the imperium, 301

Gregory the Great, 475

Gwatkin, Professor, on Augustine, 469; on the relation of early Christianity to morality, 471


Haddon, Professor, on supernaturalism, 21

Hades, 390, 391

Hannibalic War
revival of religio, 315, 317; Sibylline books consulted, 316-319, 329; sacrifices and offerings made to deities, 318; religious panic after battle of Cannae, 319; human sacrifices, 320; Delphic oracle consulted, 323, 324, 326; outbreak of lascivia, 324; institutio$1 $2 Apolline games, 326; religious history of last years, 327-329; gratitude to deities, 329; the Magna Mater of Pessinus brought to Rome, 330

Hardie, Professor, and the double altar in connection with funeral rites, 425

Hariolus, 297, 298, 311

Harrison, Miss, on covering the head at sacrifices, 195

Haruspices, 296, 313, 337, 338, 397; history of the, 307-309

Hebe, 332

Heinze, on the Aeneid, 413-415, 419, 426, 427

Heitland, Mr., on Bacchanalia, 346, 356

Heracleitus, 257

Hercules
associated with Diana, 262; with Juno, 17; in combination with Juventas and Genius, 317, 332; doubtful identification with Genius, 30; identified with the Greek Heracles, 230, 243; Victor or Invictus, 230, 231, 236, 243, 244; cult of, 231, 244; festival, 243; worship confined to men, 29

Hermes, 260

Hirtzel, Mr., cited, 426

Homer, religion of, compared with that of Roman patricians, 392

Honey cakes, 82

Honos et Virtus, 285, 446;
temple, 328

Horace, 81, 299, 403, 405;
Carmen saeculare, 431-432, 439, 443-447, 450, 451

Hora Quirini, 482-483

Horses
lustrations, 96, 215;
races, 97; sacrifice of, see Sacrifices

Howerth, Ira W., his definition of religion, 8

Hubert et Mauss, on magic, 64, 65;
on sacrifice, 190, 194, 195, 198

Human sacrifice, 33, 44, 107, 112, 226, 320, 440

Hut-urns, sepulchral, 87, 477

Huts or booths, use of, in religious ritual, 473-477

Huvelin, M., on magic, 64


Ides, 39, 65, 95, 251, 484;
sacred to Jupiter, 129

Iguvium
ritual, 22, 138, 181, 197;
lustration of the arx, 187, 214, 215; of the people, 31, 208, 215-216

Images and statues of gods, 146, 147, 165, 239, 262, 264, 336, 337; statue of Athene, 355

Immortality, belief in, 69, 386-387, 389, 424

Imporcitor, 161

Inauguratio of the priest-king Numa, 174-175, 193

Incense, 164, 180, 330, 458

Indigetes, di, 117, 139, 149, 180, 214

Indigitamenta, 76, 84, 88, 130, 138, 153, 159-161, 163, 165, 168, 281, 286, 291

Individualism, growth of, 240, 266, 287, 340, 358, 411, 456

Innocent, Bishop of Rome, 309

Iron, tabooed in religious ceremonies, 32, 35, 45, 214

Isis
religion, 455, 456;
temple, 433

Ius, early usage of, 486-487
augurale, 296
civile, 5, 169;

and the ius divinum, 58, 276-279

divinum, 13, 24, 33, 38, 49, 68, 104, 106, 107, 128, 146, 227, 228,

241, 271-273, 286, 287, 296, 345; and the ius civile, 58, 276-279; ritual, 169-191, 467;
the pontifical books the pharmacopoeia of, 286; decay and neglect, 203, 314, 327, 352, 353; reaction against, 324, 340-344, 348; Augustan revival, 429

hospitii, 31, 32
Manium, 387


Janus
the door spirit, 76, 127, 146; bifrons of the Forum, 77; speculations regarding, 125, 140, 141; cult-titles, 126; worship, 183, 212; connection with Cardea, 485; with Diana, 76, 125, 166; with Juno, 126, 135; with Vesta, 140, 145; temple, 126

Jebb, Professor, on poetry of the Greeks, 424

Jevons, Dr., 19;
on totemism, 26;
on taboo, 28, 41;
on magic, 48, 186;
on priests, 176

Jews, proselytising, expelled from Rome, 139 B.C., 397, 402

Jhering, von, on origin of Roman divination, 293, 294, 311

Jordan, H., 13;
on pairing of deities, 152

Junius, 315

Juno, 121, 479;
Caprotina, 143;
Curitis, 144;
Moneta, 135;
Populonia, 144;
Regina, (of Ardea) 318,

(of the Aventine) 318, 329,
(of Veii) 135, 206, 284;

Sospita, 318, 354;
connection with Hercules, 17;
with Janus, 126, 135;
with Jupiter, 136, 144, 166, 443, 444, 446; one of the Etruscan trias, 94, 237; representative of female principle, 17, 87, 135, 144; temples, 135, 172, 237, 328, 329, 354

Junonius, cult-title of Janus, 126

Jupiter, 115, 118, 124, 127, 128, 141, 143, 147, 159, 183, 212; difference between Jupiter and Zeus, 141; connection with Diana, 76;
with Dius Fidius, 130, 142, 167, 450; with Juno, 136, 144, 166, 443, 444, 446; with Juturna, 485;
with Tellus, 121;
with Terminus, 82;
Capitolinus, 120, 129, 204, 205, 237, 238, 240, 241, 318, 319, 333,

367;

Dapalis, 141;
Elicius, 36, 50-52, 129, 137;
Fagutalis, 141;
Farreus, 130;
Feretrius, 129, 433;
Fulgur, 129;
Grabovius, 187;
Latiaris, 237, 238;
Lucetius, 129;
Sabazius, 402;
Summanus, 129;
one of the Etruscan trias, 94, 172, 237, 336; cult at Praeneste, 167;
cult-titles Optimus Maximus, 129, 238; Ides sacred to, 129;
worshipped on Alban Mount, 109, 128, 172; epulum Iovis, 172, 263, 268, 336, 338, 353; temples, 95, 115, 129, 146, 172, 237-238, 241, 245, 246, 254, 266,

433, 443

Juturna, 284, 285;
connection with Jupiter, 485

Juventas, in combination with Genius and Hercules, 317, 332


Kalends, 39, 95, 126, 135, 251, 484

Kobbert, Maximilianus, on religio, 46

Kronos, identified with Saturnus, 118


Lactantius, 156, 165, 388, 459, 461, 462, 469

Lang, Mr., 19;
cited in connection with the calendar of Numa, 105

Lapis: see Stones

Laralia: see Compitalia

Larentia, Acca, 67

Lar familiaris, 77, 78, 92, 251

Lares compitales, 61, 117, 132, 186

Latin Festival: see Feriae Latinae

Latins, the, 10, 23, 25, 86, 123, 130, 172, 193, 229

Latona, associated with Apollo, 262

Laughing, in ritual of Lupercalia, 106, 111

Laurel branches carried in procession, 265

Lawson, J. C., on burial and cremation, 91, 400, 401

Leather, tabooed in the worship of Carmenta, 36

Lecky, Mr., on Stoicism, 362, 377

Lectisternium, 263-266, 268, 317-319, 327

Leges regiae, connection with the ius divinum, 272

Leland, C. G., 67

Lemuria, 40, 85, 98, 107, 401;
compared with the Parentalia, 393-395

Lepidus, pontifex maximus, 433, 438

Liber, 158, 260, 332;
identified with Dionysus, 255, 344; temple, 255

Libera, 260;
identified with Persephone, 255

Liberalia, 332

Libitina, 159

Licinius Imbrex, 151

Licinius, P., pontifex maximus, 342

Lightning, divination by, 51, 52, 304, 305, 307, 309

Limentinus, spirit of the threshold, 76

Livius Andronicus, 328

Livy, cited, 170, 174, 204, 205, 216, 217, 252, 261, 264, 269, 280, 300, 316, 324, 405;
on Bacchanalia, 346-348

Lua, 165, 481, 482

Lucaria, 98

Lucetius, cult-title of Jupiter, 129

Lucilius, 156, 183

Lucretius, cited, 352, 359, 360, 376, 387, 394, 396, 403-406, 453; his contempt for superstitio, 361, 367; on Roman belief in Hades, 390;
his use of religio, 460

Lucus, meaning of, 146

Ludi, 44, 95, 122, 204: see also Games magni, vowed to Jupiter during Hannibalic war, 319, 333 saeculares, 34, 431, 480;

prayers used in, 198, 468;
ritual described, 438-447;
discovery of inscriptions, 439

scenici, 261, 263, 350

Lupercalia, 20, 34, 53, 65, 106, 118, 179, 194, 210, 393; whipping to produce fertility, 54, 479; Prof. Deubner's theory, 137, 478-480

Luperci, 34, 54, 106, 434, 479

Lupercus, 478

Lustrations
meaning of lustrare, 209-210; lustration of the ager paganus, 80, 213; of the ager Romanus, 78, 100; of ancilia, 96, 217; of the army, 96, 100, 215, 217; of the arx of Iguvium, 187, 199; of cattle and sheep, 100; of the city, 214, 317; of the farm, 132, 212; of horses, 96, 215; of people, 31, 216; of trumpets, 96, 215; animistic conception of, 211; ultimately adapted by Roman Church to its own ritual, 211, 218, 457

Luthard, on Roman religion, 288


Macrobius, cited, 28, 196, 206, 208, 219, 220, 484

Macte esto, meaning of the phrase, 182, 183, 197, 442

Magic
allied to taboo, 27, 47;
contagious and homoeopathic, 48; and divination, 293, 309; harmless, 59; prayers and incantations, 185, 186, 198; private, 57, 68; in purificatory processes, 210; and religion, 47-49, 56, 224, 253; rigorously excluded from State ritual, 49, 57, 105, 107, 224; sympathetic, 50, 55

Magna Mater of Pessinus, brought to Rome, 330, 344, 348

Maia, 165, 166;
connection with Volcanus, 151, 484

Maiestas, 151, 484

Mana, the positive aspect of taboo, 27, 30, 42, 48, 60

Manes, 39, 50, 75, 85, 92, 102, 106, 121, 208, 320, 341, 391, 392; individualisation of, 386;
Di Manes, 341, 386

Mania, mother of the Lares, 61

Manilius, his poem on astrology, 396

Mannhardt, his theory of the Vegetation-spirit, 19-20, 478; on laughing in ritual of the Lupercalia, 111-112

Marcellus, 315, 328

Marcius, Latin oracles supposed to be written by, 326

Marcius Rex, praetor, 339

Marcus Aurelius, 369, 429

Marett, Mr., on taboo, 42, 45;
on sacrificium, 192;
on divination, 310

Marquardt, on Roman religion, 13, 16; on naming of children, 42

Marriage
a religious ceremony, 83, 177, 274, 279; Tellus an object of worship at, 121; among deities, 148-152, 166, 350, 481-485

Mars, 124, 129, 147, 204, 208, 215, 246, 319; various forms of his name, 131;
as a married god, 150-152, 166;
invocations to, 186, 212;
connection with Bellona, 166;
with Nerio, 150-151, 166;
with Quirinus, 134, 150;
pater, 212;
Silvanus, 29, 132, 142;
cult of, 132-134;
festival, 96-97;
temple, 133

Martianus Capella, 308

Masson, Dr., 357, 395;
on Roman fear of future torments, 391

Mastarna, Etruscan name of Servius Tullus, 237, 246

Masurius Sabinus, 90

Matutinus, cult-title of Janus, 126

Meals, sacrificial, 172, 173, 193, 436; epulum Iovis: see under Jupiter

Megalesia, 330

Mens, 285

Mercurius (Hermes), 260, 262, 268, 484

Messor, 161

Mildew, spirit of the: see Robigus

Minerva, one of the Etruscan trias, 94, 237; name Italian, not Etruscan, 234, 245; associated with trade gilds, 233, 234, 236; Capta, 284;
temples, 172, 233, 234, 244

Minium, faces painted with, 82, 115, 336

Minucius Felix, 461

Mithras, religion of, 455, 456, 464

Moirae (Parcae), 442, 446

Mola salsa: see Salt-cake

Moles, 150, 154, 158

Mommsen, cited, 200, 440;
and the religion of the Romans, 2; on the Fasti anni Romani, 95, 96, 111; on Carmen saeculare, 444

Mucius Scaevola: see Scaevola

Murus, 94

Mysticism, 380-398, 404;
in the form of astrology, 396, 401; not native to the Roman, 454


Neo-Pythagoreanism: see Mysticism

Neptunalia, 474

Neptunus, 117;
identified with Poseidon, 118, 260; connection with Salacia, 150, 483; with Mercurius, 262

Nerio
connection with Mars, 150-151, 166; meaning of Nerio Martis, 150, 154

Nettleship, Professor, on the phrase macte esto, 197; on the character of Aeneas, 410, 427; on sanctus, 470

Nigidius Figulus, 299, 384, 397

Nones, 39, 95, 251;
Nonae Caprotinae, 143

Numa Pompilius, priest
king: Livy's account of his inauguratio, 174-175; legends, 108, 115, 170, 180, 233, 322; Calendar described, 92-109; spurious books found in stone coffin, 349, 381

Numbers, mystic, 98, 328, 334, 441, 449

Numen, 34, 111, 250, 264, 364, 365, 367, 407; meaning of the word, 118;
von Domaszewski's definition of, 119; evolution of dei out of functional numina, 165; see also Spirits and Deities


Oak-gods, 125, 129, 141, 143

Oaths
connection of Castor and Pollux with, 232; of Hercules, 231; of Jupiter, 130; taken in open air, 141-142; the religious, in public life, 358, 375; used by women, 244; taboo on, 343, 355

Oberator, 161

October horse, 20, 34, 65, 106;
sacrifice of, 45, 105, 179

Odd numbers, luck in, 98

Ollae, worship of, 489-490

Opalia, 101

Opiconsiva, 101

Ops, 156;
connection with Consus, 482;
with Saturnus, 482

Oracles, 339, 354;
see also Delphic oracle

Orcus, 166;
the old name for the abode of the Manes, 391, 392; sacrifice of captives to, 44

Orosius, 333

Orphic doctrine, 381;
tablets, 398

Oscilla, 61, 67;
Dr. Frazer's theory, 61;
see also Puppets

Otto, W., on connection of religio with practice of taboo, 46

Ovid, on Roman gods, 22;
his picture of the Sementivae, 79, 80; rite of pagus, 82;
on the Lemuria, 107, 112, 394;
on Janus, 125;
on images of gods, 147;
on the Robigalia, 181, 196, 197, 434; on meals at sacrifices, 193;
on the word februum, 210;
on annual ceremony by consuls, 219; on the festival of Anna Perenna, 346, 473


Paganalia, 61, 62, 67, 102

Pagus
the familia in relation to, 71; meaning of the word, 87; festival of the Lar, 78; other festivals, 79; the religio terminorum, 81-82; lustrations of the, 213, 214

Pais, on Acca Larentia, 67;
on the Tarquinii and Mastarna, 245

Palatine
Carmen saeculare sung on the, 443-447, 450; temple of Apollo, 443-445

Pales, 122, 149

Panaetius
and the Scipionic circle, 363-364, 453; his theology, 365; and Platonic psychology, 382, 398

Pantheism, Stoic, 366-368

Papirius, the consul, 314, 315, 331

Parentalia, 40, 107, 387, 401, 418, 457; compared with the Lemuria, 393-395

Parilia, 100, 120, 193, 222, 474

Pater and Mater, as applied to deities, 155-157

Patricians, 259, 304;
religious system a monopoly of, 229

Patulcius, cult-title of Janus, 126

Pax (deity), 446, 451

Pax deorum, 169, 224, 261, 264, 272, 276, 286, 302, 328, 329; means towards maintenance of, 171, 180, 273, 300; violation of, 320;
re-established by Augustus, 429, 431, 433

Pebble-rain, 316, 329, 332

Penates, 73, 74, 86, 92, 116, 193

Persephone, 255

Peter, R., on Indigitamenta, 160

Petronius, on ceremony of the aquaelicium, 64

Philodemus, 359, 375

Picus, 297

Pietas, 174, 227, 250, 254, 387, 405, 409-412, 466; meaning of, 462-463;
Virgil's word for religion, 412

Piso, L. Calpurnius, 51-53, 484

Pius, 63, 462;
see Pietas

Plague, Sibylline books consulted at outbreak of, 261

Plato, 258, 381

Plautus, 151, 351-352

Playwrights, their influence on Roman religion, 240, 351, 353

Plebeians, 105, 170;
aediles, 255;
the Plebs as the original inhabitants of Latium, 242, 259, 268, 289; emotional tendency of, 263-264;
opening of priesthoods to, 268, 271, 279; increase of importance under the Etruscan dynasty, 275; first plebeian praetor, 279;
pontifex maximus: see Coruncanius, Titus

Pliny, 51, 256;
on spells and charms, 53, 57, 59, 60, 65, 66, 90, 186; on human sacrifice, 320;
on death, 388, 400

Polybius, cited, 250, 253, 316, 363, 369, 390; on religion, 336

Pomoerium, 94, 214, 225, 230, 231

Pomona (or Pomunus), 122, 149;
connection with Vertumnus, 485

Pompeianus, prefect of Rome, 309

Pomponius, 278, 289

Pons sublicius
no iron used in building, 35; Argei thrown from, 54, 105, 321

Pontifex Maximus, 175, 271, 280, 341; tabula kept by, 283;
compelling power of, 342, 355

Pontifices, 120, 177, 200, 341;
share in festivals, 106, 139;
the question of their origin, 180, 195, 271; insignia of, 193;
College of, 271;
open to plebeians, 268, 271, 279;
legal side of their work, 272-276; the XII. Tables, 58, 276-278, 289; self-elected, 276;
abolition of legal monopoly, 279;
work of, in third century B.C., 282; admission of new deities, 284;
compilation of annals, 285;
collection of religious formulae, 287; the Pontifical books, 76, 159, 182, 197, 283, 285-286

Porca praecidanea, rite of the, 121, 183, 191

Portunus, 118, 122

Poseidon, identified with Neptunus, 118

Posidonius, 250, 365, 367, 382-384, 398

Prayers, 76, 106, 126, 153, 215, 224, 225, 251; at the inauguratio of the priest-king Numa, 175; at making of new clearing, 169, 182; at sacrifices, 181-191;
at flowering of the pear-trees, 182; when wine is offered, 182;
for the ceremony of lustration, 183; form and manner of Roman, 185, 189, 196; magical survivals in, 188-189;
in ritual of Ludi saeculares, 442, 449, 468

Precatio, 53, 166

Priests: see Pontifices

Processions
of lustratio, adapted to the ritual of the Roman Church, 211, 218, 457; of the triumphus, 217, 239-240; Roman fondness for, 263; see also Lustrations

Procuratio, 316, 328;
fulminis, 115

Prodigia, 281, 316, 324, 325, 328, 338, 339, 354

Promitor, 161

Propertius, 22, 147, 403

Proserpina, black victims sacrificed to, 440

Pudor, 446

Pulvinaria, 337, 338

Punic War: see Hannibalic War

Puppets
Argei thrown into Tiber, 54, 105, 321; oscilla, 61, 67

Purification: see Lustrations

Puticuli, 395, 401

Pythagoras, legend of a religious connection between Numa and, 349, 381

Pythagoreanism, 349, 380-381

Pythagoreans, 98


Quindecemviri, 440, 442

Quinquatrus, 217

Quirinal, 134

Quirinus, 94, 118, 124, 143, 147, 246; identified with Mars, 134;
with Romulus, 135

Quirites, 134, 143


Rain-making: see Aquaelicium

Ramsay, Sir W. M., 465

Red colouring in sacred rites and its connection with blood, 89, 177, 194

Redarator, 161

Regia, 45, 105, 106, 271, 288;
sacrarium Martis in, 133, 208

Regifugium, 99

Reinach, M. Salomon, cited, 26, 42, 114, 131, 481

Religio, 9, 28, 30, 36, 38, 72, 76, 83, 85, 93, 104, 106, 174, 223, 227, 241, 248, 261, 263, 267, 270, 273, 282, 287, 294, 364, 405, 407; meanings and uses of the word, 21, 37, 41, 186, 192, 198, 249, 254,

385, 462, 470;

Cicero's definition of, 460;
and taboo, 34, 36, 40, 46;
revival of, during Hannibalic war, 315, 317, 336-339

Religio Larium, 79
terminorum, 81, 82

Religion, definitions of, 7-9;
and magic, 47-49, 56, 224, 253;
and morality, 227, 242, 292, 466, 471; primitive, 25-28, 63, 69;
real, a matter of feeling, 406

Roman
a highly formalised system, 3, 63, 103-104, 200, 226, 248-249, 340; compared with Roman law, 5; a technical subject, 6; its difficulties, 13; aid from archaeology and anthropology, 16-20, 25; primitive survivals in, 24, 30; examples of real magic in, 50, 53-54; a reality, 62-63, 103, 249; in the family, see Family; of the State, 93, 105, 226-228, 270; the Calendar of Numa the basis of our knowledge of, 94-109; moral influence mainly disciplinary, 108, 228; Greek influence, 120, 255-262, 346, 350-353; Roman ideas of divinity, 115-117, 122-123, 145-164; ritual of the ius divinum, 169-222; personal purity essential in all worshippers, 178; discouraged individual development, 226; introduction of new deities, 96, 229-242, 255-262; priesthoods limited to patrician families, 229; religious instinct of the Romans, 249; neglect and decay, 263-265, 287, 314, 429; growth of individualism, 240, 266, 287, 340, 358, 411, 456; Sibylline influence, 242, 255-262; secularisation of, 270-291; sinister influence of Etruscan divination, 307-309, 346; see Divination; used for political purposes, 336; attempt to propagate Pythagoreanism, 349-350, 381; destitution of Romans in regard to idea of God and sense of duty, 357-358;

no remedy in Epicurism, 361;
arrival of Stoicism: see Stoicism and Mysticism; belief in future torments, 390;
religion compared with that of Homer, 392; early Christianity, 396;
religious feeling in Virgil's poems, 403-427; Augustan revival, 428-451;
contributions to the Latin form of Christianity, 452-472; see also Prayer and Sacrifice

Renan, cited, 185

Renel, M., cited, 26

Réville, M. Jean, on the formalism of the Roman religion, 3; his definition of religion, 8

Rex Nemoreusis, 235
sacrorum, 128, 174, 175, 180, 193, 207, 229, 271, 273, 341, 434;

relation of the Rex to the augurs, 301-302

Ridgeway, Professor, on the Flamen Dialis, 112; on Janus, 140;
on original inhabitants of Latium, 242, 393

Rivers, Dr., on the ritual aspect of religion among the Todas, 489-490

Robertson Smith, Professor, 19, 26, 27, 172, 221; on the Feast of the Tabernacles, 476

Robigalia, 139, 196

Robigus, 100, 117, 122, 146, 179, 434; Ovid's version of prayer to, 197

Roman Church, survival of old religious practices in the, 25, 211, 218, 456-458, 469

Romulus, 51, 130, 135

Roscher, Dr., 141


Sacellum, meaning of, 146

Sacer and sacramentum, 36, 277, 464

Sacred utensils, worship of, 436, 489-490

Sacrifices, 29, 90, 224, 225;
description of the act, 179-181;
honorific, 172, 173;
piacular, 35, 172, 173, 182, 189, 191, 208, 273, 436; sacramental, 141, 172;
vicarious, 208;
dynamic theory of, 177, 184, 190, 194; meals in connection with, 172, 173, 193, 436; mystic use of blood, 34, 82;
victim must be acceptable to the deity, 179; women and strangers excluded from rites, 29-31; prayers at, 181-191;
sacrifice of cakes, 82, 83, 180, 183, 184; cow, 100, 120, 436;
dog, 181, 197, 216, 434;
goat, 54, 106, 179, 479;
horse, 34, 97, 105, 179;
lamb, 37, 82, 436;
ox, 132, 179, 212, 215, 444;
pig, 82, 132, 170, 179, 212, 215, 436; red dog, 179, 310;
salt-cake, 73, 207;
sheep, 132, 179, 181, 212, 215, 434; sow, 121, 183;
white heifer, 172, 177, 239;
wine, 82, 180, 182-184, 196;
see also Human sacrifice

Sacrificium, meaning of, 171, 464

Sacrum, 171, 254

Saeculum, the old Italian idea of a, 440

St. Augustine, cited, 58, 76, 120, 149, 159, 163, 297, 430, 458; on Decius, 220

Sainte Beuve, on Virgil, 404

St. Paul, 455, 466-468

Salacia, 165;
connection with Neptunus, 483

Salii, 40, 96, 110, 132, 133, 143, 176, 182, 217, 229, 434; ritual, 97
Collini, 134
Palatini, 134

Sallust, 405

Salt-cake, 73, 207

Salus, 154, 285

Sanctus, meaning of, 463-464, 470

Sarritor, 161

Saturnalia, 81, 99, 101-103, 107, 112

Saturnus, 101, 111, 118, 318;
identified with Kronos, 118;
connection with Consus, 482;
with Ops, 482

Sayce, Professor, 155

Scaevola, P. Mucius, 283
Q. Mucius, 73, 86, 338, 353, 371

Scipio, the elder, 240, 247, 267, 340, 354; receives the Magna Mater at Rome, 330 Aemilianus, 198, 203-204, 340;

his friendship with Polybius and Panaetius, 362-364, 369, 371

Scott, Sir Walter, compared with Virgil, 408

Sellar, Professor, on Virgil, 404, 406

Sementivae, festival, 79, 89

Senatusconsultum de Bacchanalibus, 347, 348, 356

Seneca, 369, 378, 438, 455

Septimontium, 110

Servius, cited, 58, 62, 119, 120, 134, 138, 142, 143, 146, 183, 184, 194, 210
Sulpicius, 371, 387
Tullius, 235;

his Etruscan name Mastarna, 237

Sibyl of Cumae, 257-258

Sibylline books, 173, 242, 255-257, 261, 323; consulted during the Hannibalic war, 316-319, 329; used for personal and political purposes, 339

Silvanus, 76, 81, 89, 132, 142

Slaves, 53, 78, 395, 401, 474;
Greek, buried alive in the Forum boarium, 112, 320

Sodales Titienses, 434

Sol, image of, on the Palatine, 445, 447, 450

Sondergötter, Usener's theory of, 161-164, 168

Spells, 48, 53, 57-59, 208, 221;
origin of prayer in, 185, 189

Spes, 285

Spirits, 34, 58;
agricultural, 161, 251, 285;
dead, see Ghosts;
of the doorway, 75-76, 92, 127;
evil, see Evil spirits;
household, 11, 68, 73, 74, 77, 83, 84, 86, 92, 104, 193; spring, 92;
water, 285;
woodland, 76, 81, 83, 92, 132;
development into dei, 116, 117, 119, 120, 123-124, 161, 165; see also Deities and Numen

Spolia opima, 138, 141, 288;
dedicated at temple of Jupiter Feretrius, 130, 433

Stanley, on religion and morality, 292

Statues and busts at Rome, first mention of, 340, 354; see also Images

Stoicism, 359, 377, 381-383;
introduced into Rome, 362;
its influence on the Roman mind, 370-372, 404, 453; weak points in Roman, 372-374;
failed to rouse an "enthusiasm of humanity," 375, 454

Stones
lapis manalis, 50;
silex, 130; stone representing Magna Mater, 330; see also Boundary stones

Strangers, fear of, 30-32

Stubbs, Bishop, 103

Subrincator, 161

Subterranean altar, black victims offered at, 440, 445

Suffimenta, 441, 442, 449

Sulpicius, consul 211 B.C., 337

Summanus, cult-title of Jupiter, 129

Suovetaurilia, 132, 212, 215

Superstitio, 106, 355, 361, 405;
temple of Isis condemned as a centre of, 433

Supplicatio, 262, 265, 269, 337;
ordered during Hannibalic war, 317, 319, 323, 325, 329


Tabernacles, Feast of the, 475, 476

Taboo, 25, 83, 223;
definition of, 27;
its ethical value, 28;
on children, 28;
on women, 29;
on strangers, 30-32;
on criminals, 32;
on inanimate objects, 32;
on places, 36;
on times and seasons, 38-41;
on iron, 35, 44, 214;
on leather, 36;
on the Flamen Dialis, 33-35, 44, 45, 108, 109, 327, 342, 343; on the Flaminica Dialis, 35

Tacitus, 398

Tarentum, sacrifices on subterranean altar, 440, 445

Tarquinii, the, 146, 237, 245

Tellus (Terra Mater), 100, 120, 122, 136, 138, 139, 156, 158, 161, 162, 320, 435, 442, 446;
an object of worship at marriage, 121; connection with Jupiter, 121;
temple, 285

Tempestates, 285

Temples
absence of, in earliest Rome, 146; restored by Augustus, 343; Aesculapius, 260; Apollo, on the Palatine, 443-445; Bona Dea on the Aventine, 484; Castor, 231, 244; Ceres, Liber, and Libera, 255-257, 269, 344; Consus, 285; Dea Dia, 161; Diana, on the Aventine, 95, 147, 234, 237, 244; Isis, 433; Janus, 126; Juno Moneta, 135, 328-329; Juno Sospita, 354; Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, 146, 172, 237-238, 246, 254, 443; Jupiter Feretrius, on the Capitol, 95, 115, 129-130, 146, 147, 203, 245, 266, 433;

Jupiter Latiaris, on the Alban Hill, 237, 238, 245; Mars, 133;
Minerva, on the Aventine, 233, 234, 244; Pales, 285;
Tellus, 285;
Vertumnus, 285;
Vesta, see Vesta: aedes

Terminalia, 34, 193, 196

Terminus, 82, 117, 239

Terra Mater, see Tellus

Tertullian, cited, 159, 163, 459, 461, 465

Theodosian code, 430

Tiberius, 429, 438, 447

Tibicines, 180, 195, 233, 445

Tibullus, cited, 22, 80, 147, 178, 403; on use of huts at rural festivals, 474

Time, religious or mystical conception of, 440-441, 449

Toga praetexta, worn by priests and children, 29, 42, 50, 61, 74, 84, 175-177, 194-195, 436
virilis, 42

Tombstones, memorial, first mention of, 341

Totemism, 25-27

Toutain, M., 26

Tozer, Mr., on Dante, 419

Trade
deities brought to Rome by, 230; connection of Hercules with, 231; gilds, 233

Trasimene, outbreak of religio after the battle of, 318

Treaties, Jupiter's connection with, 130

Tripodatio, 187, 198

Tubilustrium, 96, 217

Turiae, Laudatio, cited, 389

Turnus, 483

Tylor, Dr., 26, 49, 74, 293


Usener, H., 19, 138, 160;
his theory of the Sondergötter, 161-164, 168


Vacuna of Reate, 284, 290

Valerius Antias, 52, 115, 137
Flaccus, C., 342-343, 355
Maximus, 203-204, 299, 378

Varro, cited, 16, 59, 76, 79, 81, 89, 103, 120, 125, 142, 143, 149, 156, 159, 168, 210, 222, 235, 251, 321

Vates, meaning of, 297-298

Vedic ritual, 185

Vegetation-spirit, Mannhardt's theory, 19, 20, 478

Venilia, 483

Venus, connection with Volcanus, 166

Ver sacrum, 196, 204-205, 318

Verbenarius, 31, 43

Verrius Flaccus, 16, 30

Vertumnus, 147, 291;
connection with Pomona, 485;
temple, 285

Vervactor, 161

Vesta, 73, 74, 76, 92, 116, 126, 136, 137, 140, 147, 481; aedes, 39, 40, 126, 136, 146, 477; penus Vestae, 36, 73, 101, 136, 442

Vestal virgins, 53, 113, 120, 139, 175, 177, 194, 320; at the ceremony of the Argei, 54, 55, 106, 321; salt-cake baked by, 73;
representative of daughters of the family, 136; statues of, 144

Vicus, 71

Vilicus, 78

Vinalia, 100

Virgil, on religio, 37;
on the Paganalia, 62, 67;
on lustratio, 80, 213, 221;
on the Manes, 386, 399;
religious feeling in his poems, 403-427, 455; compared with Wordsworth, 407-408; with Scott, 408; his idea of pietas, 409;
his connection with Augustus, 428; see also Aeneid

Virites, 150, 158

Virtus, 446

Volcanalia, 98, 101

Volcanus, 118, 122, 124;
connection with Maia, 151, 484;
with Venus, 166

Volturnus, 117, 118, 122, 124

Vortumnus, 165, 284

Vows, 188, 226, 286;
private, 201-202;
public, 200, 202-204;
extraordinary, 204-208;
see also Devotio and Evocatio


Waltzing, on Roman trades, 233

Westcott, Bishop, on Augustine, 458

Westermarck, Dr., cited, 31, 44, 123, 179; on magic, 47;
on religion of primitive man, 63, 394; on Roman prayers, 185;
on religion and morality, 227

Williamowitz-Moellendorf, on Hercules, 243

Wine, used at sacrifices, 82, 180, 182-184; as a substitute for blood, 196

Winter, J. G., cited, 243

Wissowa, Georg, cited, 13, 14, 16-18, 33, 36, 112, 122, 146, 193, 199, 319, 440;
on dies religiosi, 38-40;
on the Argei, 54, 55, 65, 111, 321, 322; on the ritual of the Salii, 97;
his list of di indigetes, 117, 139; on Faunus, 118;
on Janus, 126, 141;
on Mars, 142;
on the Indigitamenta, 159, 161-163, 168; on cult of Jupiter, 167;
on prayer, 198;
on Hercules, 243;
on Hebe, 332;
on Carmen saeculare, 444, 450

Wolf's fat, used as a charm against evil spirits, 83, 90

Women, 264, 265;
taboo on, 29;
excluded from certain sacrificial rites, 29-30; at the ceremony of the aquaelicium, 64; rites to produce fertility, 54, 106, 143, 479; oaths used by, 244;
excitement among, during Hannibalic war, 324; rebellion against the ius divinum, 344; festivals, 143, 346, 443, 450;
deities, 135, 235, 272, 297, 318, 332, 479

Wordsworth, compared with Virgil, 407


Zeller, cited, 351, 356;
on human law and divine law, 371

Zeus, 367

Zosimus, cited, 309, 439, 449, 450





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